The Main Types of Irrigation

With the global pandemic caused by the coronavirus COVID-19, most parts of the world are experiencing an economic crisis, to the extent that basic necessities for their families in their territory such as food are becoming more and more inadequate as the day passes.  

Three is a need to recognize farming as one of the most needed aspects in food production, as it allows each person to have something to eat with. And although most farmers in third world countries are laboring so hard to produce their communities with food, they are unequipped with the proper irrigation systems.  

In this article, we will share with three types of irrigation systems used in different places, which are surface, overhead, and drip irrigations.  

1.Surface irrigation 

  • The following are the functions and characteristics of surface irrigation: 
  • It is ideal for water with sediments and it commonly used in residential areas through a water or lawn sprinkler system to water lawns and gardens.  
  • The water distribution is uniformed and uncontrolled and may not be suitable for soil that has more sand content 
  • When it comes to preparation and installment, this system might need digging and leveling 
  • It is good only if the area has a constant water source and slow wind 
  • It is not suited for fertigation and the soil may become salinized due to the water sourced from below 
  • The water does not make the whole place damp and this prevents fungal and molds infestation.  
  • The labor may be intensive but the installation is the cheapest among the three.  
  • The plants that are planned on this kind of irrigation do not have chemical limitations.  

2.Overhead irrigation 

  • This irrigation needs water that is potable for animals and human to safely use and drink 
  • The water distribution can be patchy but the system is suited for any type of soils 
  • Like surface irrigation. This type is ideal for areas that have a constant water source 
  • The installation and maintenance may need professional skills as they require pipes maintenance and field leveling  
  • The soil may easily erode if there is water pooling 
  • Similar to surface irrigation, salts may also rise up from below 
  • For fertigation, the soil might need nutrients wastage 
  • There is also no limit to chemicals like biocides and fertilizations 
  • The weeds can also get the same amount of water that the crops get 
  • It requires high investment costs unlike surface irrigation  

3.Drip irrigation 

  • Water that is recycled can still be sued 
  • Unlike surface, this irrigation may be uniform and controlled 
  • This is also good for areas that do not have full and consistent water source unlike the two previous water irrigation systems 
  • It requires skills and knowledge in pipe and filtration maintenance as well as field leveling 
  • There is less soil erosion that can happen 
  • It needs a proper amount of type of chemical to be used 
  • It needs high investment both in equipment installation, maintenance, and repair.  

Different types of farming and agricultural crops with differing climate, water resources, and soil use different types of water irrigation, which are the three mentioned: surface, overhead, drip. We do hope that we provided you substantial information to help you identify the correct type of system for your farming.